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Routing is a two-way conversion between URL and presenter action. Two-way means that we can both determine what presenter URL links to, but also vice versa: generate URL for given action. This article contains:

  • how to define routes and create links
  • a few notes about SEO redirection
  • how to debug defined routes
  • how to create your own router

What is a Routing?

Routing is a two-way conversion between URL and an application request.

  • Nette\Http\IRequest (includes URL) → Nette\Application\Request
  • Nette\Application\Request → absolute URL

Thanks to bidirectional routing you don't have to hardcode URLs into templates, but you simply link to presenters' actions and framework generates the URLs for you:

{* creates URL to presenter 'Product' and action 'detail' *}
<a n:href="Product:detail $productId">product detail</a>

Learn more about creating links.

Routing is a separate application layer. This allow you to very efficiently manipulate with the URL structure without the need to modify the application itself. It's simple to change routes anytime, while keeping the original addresses preserved and automatically redirect to the new variants. So hey, who's got that? :-)


Desired URL format is set by a router, which is usually defined in bootstrap.php file. The most plain implementation of router is SimpleRouter. It can be used when there's no need for a specific URL format, or when mod_rewrite (or alternatives) is not available.

Addresses look like this:

The first argument of SimpleRouter constructor is a default presenter action, ie. action to be executed if we open for example without additional parameters. The declaration itself in a bootstrap.php file might look as follows: ($container is a system DI container)

use Nette\Application\Routers\SimpleRouter;

// defaults to presenter Homepage and action default
$container->router = new SimpleRouter('Homepage:default');

Route: for prettier URLs

Human-friendly URLs (also more cool & prettier) are easier to remember and do help SEO. Nette Framework keeps current trends in mind and fully meets developers' desires.

All requests must be handled by index.php file. This can be accomplished e.g. by using Apache module mod_rewrite (see how to enable mod_rewrite) or Nginx's try_files (available by default).

Class Route can create addresses in pretty much any format one can though of. Let's start with a simple example generating a pretty URL for action Product:default with id = 123:

The following snippet creates a Route object, passing path mask as the first argument and specifying default action in the second argument.

// action defaults to presenter Homepage and action default
$route = new Route('<presenter>/<action>[/<id>]', 'Homepage:default');

This route is usable by all presenters and actions. Accepts paths such as /article/edit/10 or /catalog/list, because the id part is wrapped in square brackets, which marks it as optional.

Because other parameters (presenter and action) do have default values (Homepage and default), they are optional too. If their value is the same as the default one, they are skipped while URL is generated. Link to Product:default generates only and link to Homepage:default generates only

Path Mask

The simplest path mask consists only of a static URL and a target presenter action.

$route = new Route('products', 'Products:default');

Most real masks however contain some parameters. Parameters are enclosed in angle brackets (e.g. <year>) and are passed to target presenter.

$route = new Route('history/<year>', 'History:view');

Mask can also contain traditional GET arguments (query after a question mark). Neither validation expressions nor more complex structures are supported in this part of path mask, but you can set what key belongs to which variable:

$route = new Route('<presenter>/<action> ? id=<productId> & cat=<categoryId>', ...);

The parameters before a question mark are called path parameters and the parameters after a question mark are called query parameters.

Mask can not only describe path relative to application document root (web root), but can as well contain path relative to server document root (starts with a single slash) or absolute path with domain (starts with a double slash).

// relative to application document root (www directory)
$route = new Route('<presenter>/<action>', ...);

// relative to server document root
$route = new Route('/<presenter>/<action>', ...);

// absolute path including hostname
$route = new Route('//<subdomain><presenter>/<action>', ...);

Route Collection

Because we usually define more than one route, we wrap them into a RouteList. The following code snippet shows a bootstrap.php example ($container is a system DI container):

use Nette\Application\Routers\RouteList,

$router = new RouteList();
$router[] = new Route('rss.xml', 'Feed:rss');
$router[] = new Route('article/<id>', 'Article:view');
$router[] = new Route('<presenter>/<action>[/<id>]', 'Homepage:default');

$container->addService('router', $router);
// or shorter: $container->router = $router;

Unlike other frameworks, Nette does not require routes to be named.

It's important in which order are the routes defined as they are evaluated from top to bottom. The rule of thumb here is that routes are declared from the most specific at the top to the most vague at the bottom.

Keep in mind that huge amount of routes can negatively affect application speed, mostly when generating links. It's worth to keep routes as simple as possible.

If no route is found, a BadRequestException is thrown, which is shown as 404 Not Found to the user.

Default Values

Each parameter may have defined a default value in the mask:

$route = new Route('<presenter=Homepage>/<action=default>/<id=>');

Or utilizing an array:

$route = new Route('<presenter>/<action>/<id>', array(
	'presenter' => 'Homepage',
	'action' => 'default',
	'id' => NULL,

// equals to the following complex notation
$route = new Route('<presenter>/<action>/<id>', array(
	'presenter' => array(
		Route::VALUE => 'Homepage',
	'action' => array(
		Route::VALUE => 'default',
	'id' => array(
		Route::VALUE => NULL,

Default values for <presenter> and <action> can also be written as a string in the second constructor parameter.

$route = new Route('<presenter>/<action>/<id=>', 'Homepage:default');

Validation Expressions

Each parameter may have defined a regular expression which it needs to match. This regular expression is checked both when matching and generating URL. For example let's set id to be only numerical, using \d+ regexp:

// regexp can be defined directly in the path mask after parameter name
$route = new Route('<presenter>/<action>[/<id \d+>]', 'Homepage:default');

// equals to the following complex notation
$route = new Route('<presenter>/<action>[/<id>]', array(
	'presenter' => 'Homepage',
	'action' => 'default',
	'id' => array(
		Route::PATTERN => '\d+',

Default validation expression for path parameters is [^/]+, meaning all characters but a slash. If a parameter is supposed to match a slash as well, we can set the regular expression to .+.

Regular expressions are case-insensitive by default. You need to set Route::CASE_SENSITIVE flag to make them case-sensitive.

Optional Sequences

Square brackets denote optional parts of mask. Any part of mask may be set as optional, including those containing parameters:

$route = new Route('[<lang [a-z]{2}>/]<name>', 'Article:view');

// Accepted URLs:      Parameters:
//   /en/download        action => view, lang => en, name => download
//   /download           action => view, lang => NULL, name => download

Obviously, if a parameter is inside an optional sequence, it's optional too and defaults to NULL. Sequence should define it's surroundings, in this case a slash which must follow a parameter, if set. The technique may be used for example for optional language subdomains:

$route = new Route('//[<lang=en>.]<presenter>/<action>', ...);

Sequences may be freely nested and combined:

$route = new Route(
	'[<lang [a-z]{2}>[-<sublang>]/]<name>[/page-<page=0>]',

// Accepted URLs:
//   /cs/hello
//   /en-us/hello
//   /hello
//   /hello/page-12

URL generator tries to keep the URL as short as possible (while unique), so what can be omitted is not used. That's why index[.html] route generates /index. This behavior can be inverted by writing an exclamation mark after the leftmost square bracket that denotes the respective optional sequence:

// accepts both /hello and /hello.html, generates /hello
$route = new Route('<name>[.html]');

// accepts both /hello and /hello.html, generates /hello.html
$route = new Route('<name>[!.html]');

Optional parameters (ie. parameters having default value) without square brackets do behave as if wrapped like this:

$route = new Route('<presenter=Homepage>/<action=default>/<id=>');

// equals to:
$route = new Route('[<presenter=Homepage>/[<action=default>/[<id>]]]');

If we would like to change how the rightmost slashes are generated, that is instead of /homepage/ get a /homepage, we can adjust the route:

$route = new Route('[<presenter=Homepage>[/<action=default>[/<id>]]]');

Foo Parameters

Foo parameters are similar to optional sequences, but they are used to match a regular expression. The following route matches /index, /index.html, /index.htm and /index.php:

$route = new Route('index<? \.html?|\.php>', 'Homepage:default');

It's also possible to explicitly define a string which will be used for URL generation (similar to setting default value for real parameters). The string must be placed directly after the question mark. The following route is similar to the previous one, but generates /index.html instead of /index, because the string .html is set as a “default value”.

$route = new Route('index<?.html \.html?|\.php>', 'Homepage:default');


Route default behavior can be altered by several flags which can be passed as the third constructor parameter.

ONE_WAY flag – One way routes are usually used to preserve old URLs functionality, when an application is rewritten. Flag Route::ONE_WAY marks routes, which are not used for URL generation.

// old URL /product-info?id=123, new URL /product/123
$router[] = new Route('product-info', 'Product:detail', Route::ONE_WAY);
$router[] = new Route('product/<id>', 'Product:detail');

SECURED flag – Routes can be forced to use HTTPS by Route::SECURED flag. That's useful for authentication pages, as well as administration etc. HTTPS must be supported by your hosting/server.

$route = new Route('admin/<presenter>/<action>', 'Admin:default',

CASE_SENSITIVE flag – Routes are case-insensitive by default. Use Route::CASE_SENSITIVE to make a route case-sensitive.

// accepts all '/loRem', '/LOREM' and '/lorem'
$route = new Route('<slug lorem>', 'Page:view');

// accepts only '/lorem'
$route = new Route('<slug lorem>', 'Page:view', Route::CASE_SENSITIVE);

Flags can be freely combined using bitwise OR operator (|) and it is possible to set some flags as default for all routes using Route::$defaultFlags property.

// makes all routes case sensitive
Route::$defaultFlags |= Route::CASE_SENSITIVE;

Transformation and Translation

It's a good practice to write source code in English, but what if you need your application to run in a different environment? Simple routes such as:

$route = new Route('<presenter>/<action>/<id>', array(
	'presenter' => 'Homepage',
	'action' => 'default',
	'id' => NULL,

will generate English URLs, such as /product/detail/123, /cart or /catalog/view. If we would like to translate those URLs, we can use a dictionary defined under Route::FILTER_TABLE key. We'd extend the route so:

$route = new Route('<presenter>/<action>/<id>', array(
	'presenter' => array(
		Route::VALUE => 'Homepage', // default value
		Route::FILTER_TABLE => array(
			// translated string in URL => presenter
			'produkt' => 'Product',
			'einkaufswagen' => 'Cart',
			'katalog' => 'Catalog',
	'action' => array(
		Route::VALUE => 'default',
		Route::FILTER_TABLE => array(
			'sehen' => 'view',
	'id' => NULL,

Multiple keys may have the same value. That's how aliases are created. The last value is the canonical one (used for link generation).

Dictionaries may be applied to any path parameter. If a translation is not found, the original (non-translated) value is used. The route by default accepts both translated (e.g. /einkaufswagen) and original (e.g. /cart) URLs. If you would like to accept only translated URLs, you need to add Route::FILTER_STRICT => TRUE to the route definition.

Besides setting dictionaries as arrays, it's possible to set input and output filters. Input and output filter are callbacks defined under Route::FILTER_IN and Route::FILTER_OUT keys respectively.

$route = new Route('<presenter=Homepage>/<action=default>', array(
	'action' => array(
		Route::FILTER_IN => function ($action) {
			return strrev($action);
		Route::FILTER_OUT => function ($action) {
			return strrev($action);

The input filter accepts value from URL and should return a value which will be passed to a presenter. The output filter accepts value from presenter and should return a value which will be used in URL. If any of those filters is unable to filter the value (usually because it is invalid), it should return NULL.


Default configuration for each parameter is taken from its style. Styles for path parameters are named after them (e.g. id), styles for query parameters are prefixed with a question mark (e.g. ?id). If such style does not exist, the default one is used. The one for path parameters is called # and the one for query parameters is called ?#. Parameters can also specify explicitly its style in the path mask after a hash sign (e.g. <id#customStyle>).

To define a new style call Route::addStyle($name, $parentStyle) method. The parent style parameter is used to define a style which the new style will be based on. To configure existing style call Route::setStyleProperty($style, $key, $value).

For example let's define that all <id> path parameters in all routes must be numeric.

// define a new style, based on # = default for path parameters
Route::addStyle('id', '#');

// change validation expression
Route::setStyleProperty('id', Route::PATTERN, '\d+');

// in the following route the <id> must be numeric
$route = new Route('<presenter>/<action>[/<id>]', ...);

Styles must be defined before the route which is using them is created.

You can also define general styles (not for specific parameter), they just need to start with a hash sign (#).

Route::addStyle('#numeric', '#');
Route::setStyleProperty('#numeric', Route::PATTERN, '\d+');

// in the following route the <id> will use the #numeric style
$route = new Route('<presenter>/<action>[/<id#numeric>]', ...);

Have a quick look at the default styles.

Routing Debugger

We should keep it no secret that routes may seem to be magical for a while. But you will always appreciate value of Routing Debugger. It's a Debugger bar panel, which gives you a list of all parameters a router got and a list of all defined routers. It's turn on automatically, as long as the application runs in debug mode. It also shows on which presenter and action you are currently on.

SEO and canonization

Framework increases SEO (search engine optimalization) as it prevents multiple URLs to link to different content (without a proper redirect). If more than one addresses link to same target (/index and /index.html), framework choses the first (makes it canonical) and redirect other to it with HTTP code 301. Thanks to that your page won't have duplicities on search engines and their rank won't be split.

This whole process is the so called canonication. Default (canonical) url is the one router generaets, that is first route in collection without ONE_WAY flag.

Canonization is done by Presenter and it's switched on by default. You may disable it by setting $presenter->autoCanonicalize = FALSE.

Ajax and POST requests are not redirected as user would suffer either a data loss, or it would yell no additional SEO value.


If we want to add separate modules into our application that have their own routes, for example a discussion forum, we may define routes elsewhere, possibly in createRoutes() method:

class Forum
	static function createRoutes($router, $prefix)
		$router[] = new Route($prefix . 'index.php', 'Forum:Homepage:default');
		$router[] = new Route($prefix . 'admin.php', 'Forum:Admin:default');

“Routing-in” the forum into existing application can be as easy as calling this method: (bootstrap.php)

$container->addService('router', function() {
	$router = new RouteList;
	// our routes

	// adding forum module
	Forum::createRoutes($router, '//');
	return $router;

Custom router

If these offered routes do not fit your needs, you may create your own router and add it to your router collection. Router is nothing more but an implementation of IRouter with it's two methods:

class MyRouter implements Nette\Application\IRouter
	function match(Nette\Http\IRequest $httpRequest){ }

	function constructUrl(Nette\Application\Request $appRequest, Nette\Http\Url $refUrl) { }

Method match does process current $httpRequest (which offers more than just the URL) into internal Nette\Application\Request which contains presenter name and it's parameters. If original request could not be processed, return NULL.

Method constructUrl generates absolute URL from internal request, possibly utilizing information from $refUrl argument.

Possibilities of custom routers are unlimited, for example it's possible to implement a router based on database records.